PECULIARITIES OF THE REHABILITATION PROGRAM IN ELDERLY PATIENTS IN THE POST-OPERATIVE PERIOD WITH ACUTE CALCULOUS CHOLECYSTITIS
Currently, the elderly and senile account for 10 to 25% of all hospitalized for acute calculous cholecystitis.
High operative-anesthetic risk, concomitant diseases and low resistance to surgical trauma are the cause of high frequency of postoperative complications and fatalities in this category of patients. In recent years, a reduction in postoperative mortality in acute cholecystitis, which is currently 0.28-2.9%, with gangrenous cholecystitis, it is higher to 17.8%.
The aim of the study is to analyze and develop a rehabilitation program in the postoperative period in elderly and senile patients after surgery with acute calculous cholecystitis.
Materials and methods We conducted an analysis of surgical treatment of 53 elderly and senile patients with acute calculous cholecystitis. In all patients, this diagnosis was confirmed intraoperatively and histologically.
The age of all patients ranged from 61 to 89 years (mean 72.4 ± 8.7 years). Among the examined sick men there were 12 (22.6%), women - 41 (77.4%).
The main criteria for assessing and creating a rehabilitation program in patients after surgery with acute calculous cholecystitis were the following processes: improving the general condition of patients, restoring intestinal motility, restoring or improving all impaired cardiovascular and respiratory functions, prevention of general complications (cardiovascular, respiratory, urinary, digestive and other systems), local (from the wound), normalization of blood parameters, One of the important components of successful surgical treatment of patients in the postoperative period is the timely restoration of respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive system after surgery. a guarantee of prevention of probable postoperative complications which are formed in the first 3-5 days after surgery.
Objectives of the rehabilitation program in the early postoperative period in elderly and senile patients with acute calculous cholecystitis: to reduce the impact of drugs and accelerate the excretion of toxic substances from the body; restore adequate respiration and oxygen saturation; improve external respiration function, bronchial patency and bronchial drainage function; stabilize central hemodynamics to reduce peripheral circulatory disorders; prevent complications from the gastrointestinal tract, thromboembolic complications; prevent complications from the postoperative wound.
- Development of a rehabilitation program is a mandatory component in operated patients.
- Particular attention is paid to elderly and senile patients, who require a set of rehabilitation measures to be minimal, but sufficient to restore lost or reduced body functions in the early postoperative period, but at the same time, it should not exceed the patient's capabilities and ensure maximum efficiency. restoration.
- Start a rehabilitation program (breathing exercises, kinesiotherapy, massage, inhalation in combination with physiotherapy procedures) should be 12 - 16 hours after surgery.
Prospects for further development Continue to develop a rehabilitation program for elderly and senile patients, taking into account the functional capabilities of the body in the long period of rehabilitation.
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