METHODS OF RESEARCH OF THE FUNCTIONAL CONDITION OF THE VESTIBULAR APPARATUS IN CHILDREN WITH SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS
The article considers research methods and features of the functional state of the vestibular apparatus and vestibular disorders in children with sensorineural hearing loss. We used the methods of analysis, generalization and systematization of data from domestic and foreign literature sources on methods of studying the vestibular apparatus in children with sensorineural hearing loss. It was determined that the function of balance and coordination of movements is one of the most complex, and consists of several analyzers - visual, vestibular, proprioceptive and tactile. When studying the physical development of children with this pathology, attention is paid to the formation of the main static-dynamic and coordination capabilities according to the age of the child. In children with congenital sensorineural deafness, and especially double deafness, there are signs of vestibular insufficiency and impaired translational control, movement and gait. This affects the development of gross motor functions, such as sitting and walking, to a lesser extent affects fine motor skills, if there are no layers of other pathologies of the central nervous system.
The pathological process in the auditory analyzer changes the function of the vestibular apparatus, due to their close location in the labyrinth and innervation by one cranial nerve, and in turn changes in the vestibular apparatus contribute to the formation of motor disorders. Therefore, we can observe a certain general principle of operation of the auditory and vestibular systems. At children who have low vestibular stability any turns, inclinations, sharp change of a direction of movement causes imbalance of coordination and balance of movements. All these delays in physical development, according to many authors, are cumulative in character and are caused by the hearing defect itself, insufficient information from the environment, difficulty expressing thoughts and desires verbally, as well as the state of the motor analyzer and vestibular activity. Children with hearing impairment have an insufficient level of coordination development, physical development, static and dynamic balance, spatial orientation. Researches of the vestibular apparatus, namely the functions of coordination and balance are carried out in several categories: the research of tonic vestibular reactions, coordination of movements and static and dynamic balance. Researches of tonic vestibular reactions are performed on the following tests: the test with outstretched arms, Vodak-Fisher test, pointing test Barani, finger-nose test, Holmagi test. Researches of static and dynamic equilibrium are carried out on the samples of Romberg, Grahe, Oppenheim, walking in a straight line. When analyzing these samples, we can talk about the degree of violation of coordination and stato-dynamic balance.
As a result of vestibular compensation, children with sensorineural deafness can catch up with their peers with normal hearing with the help of visual and somato-sensory systems, pyramidal and extra-pyramidal systems.
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