CLINICAL PECULIARITIES OF WOUND HEALING IN THE POSTOPERATIVE PERIOD OF SURGICAL TREATMENT OF ALVEOLAR PROCESS ATROPHY OF THE UPPER JAW AND PART OF THE LOWER JAW IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN
Introduction. Atrophy of the alveolar process of the upper jaw and part of the lower jaw is often observed after the tooth extraction. It is known that the atrophy of bone tissue is most likely observed in the first 12 months after the tooth extraction. According to the Koln classification, atrophy of the bone tissue of the jaws can be vertical, horizontal and combined. The aim of surgical treatment of jaw bone tissue atrophy is to increase the size in the area of alveolar process of the upper jaw and part of the lower jaw to further restoration of masticatory function, in particular with the use of dental implants.
The aim of the study: to study the dynamics of wound healing in postmenopausal women with osteopenia after surgical treatment of jaw bone tissue atrophy using osteoplastic material and ossein-hydroxyapatite compound.
Materials and methods of the study. There were observed 63 postmenopausal women with osteopenia, aged from 50 to 59 years, with atrophy of the maxillary and mandibular alveolar process, who were performed surgical treatment. During surgery, patients were divided into 3 groups: Group I – 23 patients with atrophy of the alveolar process of the upper jaw and part of the lower jaw with osteopenia, with the reduced bone tissue density, who were treated surgically for bone tissue atrophy using the method worked out by us. Group II – 23 patients with atrophy of the alveolar process of the upper jaw and part of the lower jaw with osteopenia, with the reduced bone density who were performed surgical treatment of atrophy of the jaw bone tissue using osteoplastic material of animal origin. Group III – 23 patients with atrophy of the alveolar process of the upper jaw and part of the lower jaw with the indices of bone tissue density within normal limits, who were performed surgical treatment of atrophy of the jaw bone tissue using osteoplastic material of animal origin.
The results of the study. A total of 69 edentulous areas on the upper and lower jaws were examined after surgery for the treatment of jaw bone tissue atrophy. Examination of the postoperative wound was performed during the 3rd, 9th, and 14th day in the absence of complaints from patients during this period, as well as in the presence of signs of complications.
Discussion of the results. According to the offered by us method of decortication of the bone tissue of the jaws, which was used to treat patients of group I, the blood supply to the postoperative area and infiltration of bone material with blood due to provoked by decortication of bone tissue bleeding, are improved. Impregnation of bone material with blood promotes angiogenesis in the postoperative area, increasing cellular activity during wound healing. It is known that due to the absence of sufficient blood supply, tissue necrosis occurs [8,9]. In patients of groups II and III the complete healing of the postoperative wound with primary tension took longer than in patients of group I. Also, in 3 patients of group II and in 1 patient of group III the wound dehiscence in the postoperative area was observed.
Conclusions. As a result of the performed observations of wound healing after surgical treatment of jaw bone tissue atrophy in patients of groups I, II and III, the least complications were observed in patients of group I in the early postoperative period.
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