STAGES OF PRECLINICAL STUDIES OF HERBS EXTRACTS OF ARTEMISIA SPECIES
At the present stage of the development of science, it remains relevant to create new medicines of plant origin with the use of extracts as active substances and improvement of the composition and technology of existing ones.
The article aimed to highlight the main stages of preclinical studies of herbal extracts of Artemisia species to establish their pharmacological activity, preclinical safety profile, and prospects for further research in developing a medicinal product.
As a result of the research conducted using the method of generalization and systematic analysis, we identified the main stages of pharmacological research of plant extracts as medicinal substances using the example of Artemisia absinthium L. and Artemisia vulgaris L. extracts.
Identifying the main stages of pharmacological research of plant extracts is necessary to establish the preclinical profile of the substance's safety, pharmacological effectiveness, and prospects for further study in the development of the medicinal product.
In the first stage, a toxico-pharmacological study of the extracts is carried out, which includes the study of acute toxicity of the еxtracts. It was established that the intragastric administration of extracts of Artemisia absinthium L. and Artemisia vulgaris L. at a dose of 6000 mg/kg does not lead to the death of animals, which indicates the absence of toxic effects of the extracts in this dose, and characterizes them as practically non-toxic (toxicity class V, LD50 > 5000 mg/kg).
At the second stage of pharmacological research, the anti-inflammatory activity of Artemisia absinthium L. and Artemisia vulgaris L. extracts was studied (on models of formalin, carrageenan, and zymosan edema). It was established that the sections of Artemisia absinthium L. and Artemisia vulgaris L. showed a pronounced anti-exudative effect throughout the experiment.
At the third research stage, a study of specific pharmacological activity – hepatoprotective (antioxidant) training was activity.
It was found that extracts of Artemisia species exhibit hepatoprotective activity in acute toxic liver damage, which leads to a decrease in the intensity of the lipid peroxidation process and a reduction in the harmful effect of tetrachloromethane, bringing the biochemical indicators of blood and liver homogenate of animals to the level of intact animals. The results of the research show that the extract of the herb Artemisia absinthium L. at a dose of 25 mg/kg of the animal's body weight showed a more intense and more effective effect in acute hepatitis compared to the extract of the herb Artemisia vulgaris L. The extract of the herb Artemisia absinthium L. are not inferior to the hepatoprotective effect of the comparative drug "Silibor".
So, we established a general design of pharmacological research, which included the following stages:
I stage. Study of the harmlessness of extracts - study of acute toxicity.
II stage. Study of pharmacological activity of extracts - anti-inflammatory activity.
III stage. Research of specific pharmacological activity – hepatoprotective (antioxidative) activity.
Thus, a properly planned preclinical study showed the absence of toxic effects of Artemisia absinthium L. and Artemisia vulgaris L. extracts and the prospect of further pharmacological experiments.
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