STATE OF THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM AFTER COVID-19 (LITERATURE REVIEW)
The first case of a coronavirus infection called SARS CoV-2 and the disease caused by this virus, COVID-19, was recorded on December 8, 2019 in the city of Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. On December 31, 2019, a death from a respiratory disease of unknown origin was registered and reported to WHO. The outbreak of this infection has reached pandemic proportions.
Information available in the available literature about the impact of coronavirus infection on the female and male reproductive system is limited and contradictory.
Research rationale. That the available data on the effect of SARS-CoV 2 on the female and male reproductive system are few and contradictory, which requires further study of the problem
The purpose of the research. Conduct a systematic analysis of available modern literature on the impact of COVID-19 on the reproductive system of women and men.
The materials and methods. The literature analysis was carried out on the basis of available scientific sources of the last years 2019-2023. The search strategy was related articles related to the impact of the transmitted SARS-CoV-2 infection on the female reproductive system by manual search in Pub-Med and Google Scholar databases.
Research results. To date, there is no reliable data on the infection of ovarian tissue and endometrium, which affects oogenesis, embryo implantation processes, early embryogenesis, pregnancy in natural cycles and DRT programs. When infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the following mechanisms are possible: damage to the female reproductive system: damage to the ovarian tissue with a violation of ovulatory function, damage to the oocytes with the formation of aneuploid oocytes, damage to the endometrium with a violation of the embryo implantation process. In the available sources of literature at the moment, there are no reliable data confirming infection of ovarian tissues or endometrium affecting oogenesis, embryo implantation processes, early embryogenesis, onset of pregnancy in a natural cycle or DRT programs. Long-term follow-up of patients with COVID-19 is necessary to obtain reliable data. On the basis of experimental studies, it is possible to assume the possibility of the SARS CoV-2 virus affecting the reproductive system of a woman as follows: infection of ovarian tissue, violation of ovulatory function, and the formation of infected oocytes with reduced fertilization potential. Infection of oocytes with the SSARS CoV-2 virus affects the female reproductive system in the following ways: infection of ovarian tissues, violation of ovulatory function, formation of infected oocytes with reduced fertilization potential. Infection of oocytes with the SARS CoV-2 virus can contribute to the formation of aneuploid oocytes incapable of fertilization. Infection of the endometrium with the SARS CoV-2 virus can contribute to the disruption of embryo implantation processes. Despite the significant lack of publications on the effects of the SARS CoV-2 virus on the female reproductive organs in the available literature sources, there are more studies on the effects of this virus on the male reproductive system.
Conclusions. Understanding the mechanisms of the impact of the SARS CoV-2 virus on the reproductive system will contribute to the development of ways to prevent infertility, reproductive losses and pregnancy complications in women who have experienced COVID-19. It should be noted that the available data on the impact of SARS-CoV 2 on the female and male reproductive system are also few and contradictory, which requires further study of the problem.
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