SODIUM GLUTAMATE: MECHANISMS OF INFLUENCE ON DIFFERENT ORGANS AND BODY SYSTEMS (LITERATURE REVIEW)
There are lots of reports about the negative impact of monosodium glutamate on the structural organization of organs, in particular, the nervous, digestive, immune and other systems in the medical literature. The hypothalamus is a part of the midbrain that receives impulses, coordinates and regulates the activity of the entire body, the gray hump is the higher vegetative center of thermoregulation and metabolism, so the study of morphological changes in the structural elements of the gray hump of the hypothalamus will make it possible to understand the cause and method of obesity correction. Although the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends that monosodium glutamate is not harmful in safe doses, and no adverse effects have been observed when monosodium glutamate is taken with food, it is virtually impossible to establish a safe dose because most common foods today contain monosodium glutamate.
Goal. To analyze the data of modern scientific literature regarding the influence of monosodium glutamate on the morpho-functional state of the body's organs and systems.
Research rationale. Analyzing the modern scientific literature, it can be said that, despite the large-scale study of the problems of the effects of monosodium glutamate on various organs, many issues remain insufficiently studied. Most of the works are devoted to the study of the effect of monosodium glutamate on the liver, pancreas, reproductive and immune systems, but the issue of the effect on the brain and its structures remains poorly studied. There is no information about research in the area of the gray hump of the hypothalamus.
The aim of the study. To establish the features of the structural organization of the gray humerus of the hypothalamus in normal conditions and under the influence of monosodium glutamate.
Materials and methods. The research was performed among publications in Google Scholar, PUBMED and Web of Science (according to the recommendations of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis), published no more than 10 years ago. Individual older works that are fundamental to understanding this problem are also taken into account.
The results. Monosodium glutamate is a food additive that has been known as a «taste enhancer» for more than 100 years. In Japan, it is the fifth type of taste – «umami», after sour, bitter, salty and sweet. According to US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines, monosodium glutamate is not harmful in safe doses. No significant side effects have been observed during taking monosodium glutamate with food. It is virtually impossible to establish a safe dose, because most common foods today contain glutamate. Today, there is no unequivocal answer regarding the safety of this food supplement, so the analysis of literature is required.
Conclusions. Analyzing current information, it can be argued that glutamate-induced damage is manifested by metabolic and dystrophic changes, as well as impaired behavioral responses. However, the question of the effect of monosodium glutamate on the structural organization of organs requires a deeper study. It is planned for the first time to investigate the micro- and ultrastructure of the gray humerus of the hypothalamus under the influence of monosodium glutamate and under the conditions of its withdrawal. The results of the work will make it possible to create a morphological basis for the development of correction of conditions that develop under long-term exposure to monosodium glutamate and under the conditions of its withdrawal, and will also help to prevent the development of glutamate-induced diseases.
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