PECULIARITIES OF MALITY AND MORTALITY FROM MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS, INCLUDING RESPIRATORY ORGANS, IN UKRAINE
Ukraine is on the list of countries with a high incidence of malignant neoplasms (MN). Among the adult population of Ukraine and European countries, the most common cancers are malignant neoplasms of the respiratory system (MNRS). High priorities in the continuation of MNRS research are determined by high rates of initially neglected cases of respiratory cancer and low survival rates of patients. MN is one of the leading causes of death in the world. According to the WHO, in 2020 about 10 million people died as a result of MN. The most common were cancers of the breast, lung, colon, prostate, skin and stomach. At the same time, the highest number of deaths was recorded as a result of pulmonary disease.
The aim is to investigate and analyze the indicators of the oncological service, as well as the level of morbidity and mortality for malignant neoplasms, including the respiratory organs among the population of Ukraine.
Materials and methods. The materials for the study were the data of the Cancer Registry for 2019-2020. In the course of this study, the medical-statistical method and the method of structural-logical analysis were used.
Results. According to the Center for Medical Statistics, as of the beginning of 2021, 1 million 187.6 thousand patients with oncological diseases are registered in medical institutions in Ukraine.
Men most often had lung cancer, trachea and bronchi (15.3%), prostate (12.4%) and non-melanoma skin diseases (9.9%). In women, breast cancer (20.3%), non-melanoma skin diseases (12.9%) and uterine cancer (9.5%) were the most common. MN of the lungs, trachea and bronchi among women ranks 10th in the structure of morbidity.
It has been established that in 2020 every fifth case of MN in Ukraine was detected in the abandoned (4th) stage. Oncological diseases in the first stage were detected in 22.8% of patients, in the second - in 24.6%, in the third - in 18.2%, in the fourth - in 20.5%. At the same time, fewer patients in the first and second stages were detected over the past year and, accordingly, more patients in the third and fourth stages. In 7.8% of primary patients, the stage was not determined.
In general, 27.1% of Ukrainians have not lived a year since the detection of the disease. Of the MN of the larynx, the proportion of such patients was 25.1%, and of the MN of the trachea, bronchi, and lung - as much as 59.7%, that is, more than half of the patients.
It has been established that in Ukraine in recent years, the detection of patients at professional examinations has almost disappeared. As of 2020, this figure was 20.2%. As for this indicator in case of MN of the respiratory organs, they are critical - 9.7% for MN of the larynx and 11.9% for MN of the trachea, bronchi, and lung. Even compared to 2019, this figure has decreased (22.4% in 2019).
Conclusions. It has been established that in the structure of the incidence of MN among the population of Ukraine, the leading place is occupied by MN of the trachea, bronchi, lungs, and they are also the main structure-forming factor in morbidity at the age of 30 to 74 years; most often, MNRO is detected in abandoned stages (third and fourth); 59.7% of patients did not live a year from the time of detection of MN disease in the trachea, bronchi, lungs, which is a significantly higher indicator than in MN in general (27.1%); The proportion of patients who are diagnosed with MNRO during preventive examinations is critically low (10.8%). The above data indicate the imperfection of the organization of oncological care for the population, which requires consideration and clarification of the causes at the regional levels.
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