FEATURES OF THE CLINICAL COURSE OF NON-ST-SEGMENT ELEVATION ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME DEPENDING ON THE INDICATOR OF THE PULSE WAVE VELOCITY
Pulse wave velocity (PWV) could be used as a predictor of the course of CVD. A carotid–femoral PWV above 10 m/s was determined in 2018 ESC/ESH Guidelines for the Management of Arterial Hypertension as factors influencing cardiovascular risk in patients with hypertension. Exactly the carotid–femoral PWV is considered the gold standard for arterial stiffness assessment in clinical practice. Usually PWV predict the long-term outcomes (in a few month or years) of the development of cardiovascular events. There are a lack of information about using PWV as prognostic marker in acute coronary syndrome.
The aim: to study the features of the clinical course of the non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) depending on the carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and find out possibilities of using PWV as marker of intrahospital clinical outcomes.
Materials and methods. 80 patients were recruited. All patients were hospitalized into myocardial infarction departments with a diagnosis of NSTE-ACS. Patients over 18 years of age who were hospitalized for the first 3 days after the onset of pain and signed the agreement to participate in the study were included. Exclusion criteria were the moderate or severe anemia, severe chronic renal failure, and chronic diseases in the acute or decompensated stage. The average age of patients was 64.5 [55; 72] years. Male patients are 45 persons (56.3%). Were performed standard general laboratory and instrumental examinations. Measuring of free DNA levels, and ischemic albumin were performed on 1st and 6th days of hospitalization. Also noninvasive measured of PWV. Noninvasive PWV measurements were performed after stabilization of the hemodynamic for excluding incorrect results due to its strong connection with current blood pressure. 2 groups were formed depend on the PWV above or less than 10 m/s. The analysis was performed by using non-parametric statistical methods (Mann-Whitney test, Wilcoxon T-test, Pearson's χ2 test). The results were considered statistically significant at p <0.05.
Results. Patients did not have a statistically significant difference in such parameters as gender, anamnestic data (hypertension, myocardial infarction, chronic heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and diabetes mellitus), hemodynamic parameters, ECG changes at the moment of hospitalization and laboratory parameters. There was a tendency that patients with elevated PWV were older (69 [55.3; 77.8] years vs. 63.5 [55.3; 70.8] years) (p = 0.077). Such parameters as left ventricular ejection fraction and discharge diagnosis were similar. Patients with elevated PWV had significantly more active cytolysis. This is proved by significantly higher levels of free DNA both on the first day and on the 6th day of hospitalization. In patients with normal PWV levels, free DNA decreased in dynamics, while in patients with PWV above 10 m / s this marker remained at the same level. It was also founded that patients with elevated PWV had delayed ischemia (on the 6th day of hospital stay), which was confirmed by a higher level of ischemia-modified albumin than in the group with PWV less 10 m / s.
Conclusions. Patients with increased and normal PWV have quite similar group characteristic according typical clinical signs, results of laboratory and instrumental investigations. Due to the studying of free DNA and ischemia-modified albumin were clarified that PWV above 10 m/s is associated with delayed ischemia and longer tissue damage and could be used to predict it.
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