GENDER FEATURES OF STRUCTURAL-GEOMETRIC REMODELING OF THE LEFT VENTRICLE IN PATIENTS WITH MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION WITHOUT ELEVATION OF ST SEGMENT
Recently, there has been a tendency to increase the incidence of myocardial infarction without elevation of the ST segment, which, according to some data, accounts for about half of all registered MI. The main problem with this type of infarction is that the long-term prognosis in these patients remains unsatisfactory, and mortality one year after the catastrophe is equal to or even higher than mortality from ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, which encourages continued predictors of unfavorable prognosis.
Objective: to determine the gender characteristics of the structural and geometric remodeling of the left ventricle in patients with myocardial infarction without ST segment elevation.
Materials and methods. We conducted a comprehensive study of 200 patients with acute myocardial infarction without ST-segment elevation (NSTEMI) aged 38 to 80 (mean 62.0 ± 0.71, median 62 and interquartile range 55 and 70). The structural and functional state of the myocardium and types of left ventricular remodeling according to transthoracic echocardiography were studied.
Results. Analysis of the obtained data shows that echocardiographic parameters in patients with NSTEMI depending on gender did not reveal significant differences between different groups. The exception was the size of the right atrium, which was significantly higher in the group of men compared to women with comparable values of the size of the right ventricle and the ratio of the size of the left to the right atrium. Analysis of the nature of structural and geometric remodeling of the left ventricle in general by groups showed that almost half of the subjects registered concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle. Concentric left ventricle remodeling was observed in one third of patients and in other patients - normal geometry and eccentric left ventricle hypertrophy. Thus, it was found that concentric models of left ventricle – concentric hypertrophy and concentric remodeling – were registered in the vast majority of patients with NSTEMI. The latter can be explained by a significant proportion of hypertension which was identified by us in most patients and, of course, contributed to the development of concentric models of left ventricle.
Analysis of the nature of structural and geometric remodeling of the left ventricle depending on gender showed that in the group of men, compared with women, there was a significant increase in the incidence of concentric remodeling. At the same time, in women, compared with men, there was a significant increase in cases of more severe types of structural remodeling - concentric and eccentric hypertrophy.
Thus, we found that gender differences in echocardiographic parameters in patients with NSTEMI relate exclusively to indicators of structural and geometric remodeling of the left ventricle. Signs of concentric and eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy predominate in women, and indicators of normal geometry and concentric left ventricular remodeling in men. This distribution of types of remodeling indicates a more severe course and unfavorable prognosis of NSTEMI in women.
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