FEATURES OF CLINICAL SYMPTOMS AND THE INFLUENCE OF RISK FACTORS ON THE OCCURRENCE OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN CHILDREN OF LVIV REGION OF DIFFERENT AGES
Bronchial asthma (BA) is a common chronic pathology of the lower respiratory tract in children. The first manifestations of the disease can begin at any age, but the clinical features, of the course, are different in different periods of childhood. Manifestations and course of asthma may disappear or progress with age. Therefore, it is likely that there are differences in the pathophysiology, inflammatory response of the body and the features of the clinic of asthma in children of different ages, which affects the diagnosis and treatment. The aim of the study was to determine the features of clinical symptoms and the influence of risk factors for asthma on its occurrence in children of different ages.
Materials and methods. We analyzed the anamnesis and clinical symptoms of 57 children aged 3 to 18 years, who were treated from September 2020 to June 2021 in the Lviv Regional Children's Clinical Hospital “OHMATDYT” and in the Lviv Municipal City Children's Clinical Hospital. The age groups did not differ statistically in the severity of asthma (P> 0.05). Thus, in group 1 was 1 patient (9.09%) with mild form, 1 patient (9.09%) - moderate persistent form, 8 patients (72.73%) - with severe persistent form. Among patients of age group 2 was 1 patient (3.85%) with mild persistent form, 3 children (11.54%) - moderate and 21 children (80.77%) - with severe persistent form. In group 3 was 1 patient (5%) with a mild persistent form, 6 patients (30%) - moderate and 12 children (80%) - with a severe persistent form. The vast majority of patients were boys (84.21 ± 4.83%). All patients underwent general clinical examinations, spirometry, and allergy tests. We used the clinical-anamnestic method to perform the tasks of the work, which consisted in collecting a detailed somatic and genealogical anamnesis during the parents` questionnaire. Physical development of children was assessed using centile tables. Statistics were evaluated by calculating Student's t-test and Pearson's consistency test. Preschool children with asthma were more likely to experience shortness of breath during exercise and a wet low-yielding cough, and children of primary and secondary school age were more characterized by concomitant allergic rhinitis. Autumn was more unfavorable period for the exacerbation of clinical manifestations of asthma in children of Lviv region was period. We did not find correlation of birth weight on the timing of asthma. However, a burdensome obstetric history contributed to the early development of clinical manifestations of asthma. Preschool children were more likely to be exposed to nicotine during the antenatal period and had a shorter duration of breastfeeding, which may be a probable risk factor for asthma in preschool children. In 77% of children from different age groups were burdened with a history of allergies, with 66% of cases more pronounced in the maternal line. An analysis of physical development revealed that most preschool children were overweight.
Conclusions. Asthma has features of clinical symptoms in children of different ages - shortness of breath during exercise and whooping cough are characteristic of preschool children, and concomitant chronic persistent rhinitis - for older age groups. Seasonal exacerbations are characteristic of asthma in children; in particular, the autumn period is more unfavorable, common for asthmatics in children of all ages among patients in Lviv region. Maternal smoking during pregnancy has a significant effect on the risk of developing asthma in children. Also, a burdened maternal allergy history and overweight child contributes to the development of asthma in children.
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