CHANGES IN THE STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION OF THE SPLEEN UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE AND AFTER ITS ABOLITION
Relevance. Monosodium glutamate is one of the most common dietary supplements in the world. Monosodium glutamate not only enhances the taste of foods, but also increases appetite, which, in turn, leads to an increase in the amount of food consumed, which contains food additives, closing the circle, which is the basis of high-calorie diet (HCD) used in research.
The aim of the research: to study the morphometric, histological and electron microscopic changes of the parenchyma of the spleen of rats under the influence of monosodium glutamate and after its abolition.
Methods. The research was performed on 52 white male rats and females of reproductive age (2.5-6.5 months) weighing 120-300 g. The microanatomy of the spleen under physiological norms was studied in 10 intact animals. The experimental animals were divided into 3 groups: the first group (10 animals), which were fed HCD for eight weeks; the second group (10 animals), which were fed HCD for eight weeks, and then transferred to the standard diet of vivarium for 4 weeks; the third group (10 animals), which were fed HCD for eight weeks, and then transferred to the standard diet of vivarium for 8 weeks. There were 5 male rats and 5 female rats in each group. HCD was achieved by adding sodium glutamate to food at a dose of 0.07 g / kg body weight of rats. Statistical processing of digital data was performed using «Excel» software and «STATISTICA» 6.0 using the parametric method.
Results. After eight weeks of influence of monosodium glutamate, a significant decrease in the relative area of white pulp in the parenchyma of the spleen of white rats of males and females, an increase in secondary lymphoid nodules, an increase in monocytes, macrophages, plasma cells and myeloid cells, an increase in the share of reticular connective tissue in the splenic cords it was found. Erythrocytes and thrombocytes not only fill the lumen of the sinuses of the spleen, but also accumulate in the pulpal cords a large number of lymphocytes at different stages of apoptosis. The lumen of the venous sinuses of the red pulp is full-blooded, dilated and slightly deformed. There are signs of edema around the vessels and venous sinuses. An increase in the number of plasma cells indicates an acceleration of the proliferation of activated lymphocytes, which is a sign of the immunoinductive effect. After four weeks of cancellation of monosodium glutamate, the histological and electron microscopic structure of the organ is almost indistinguishable from the previous group. The plethora of the spleen increases, the cell density decreases. The proportion of apoptically altered cells increases.
Even 8 weeks after discontinuation of monosodium glutamate, no reversible changes in the structure of the splenic parenchyma were detected. Lymphoid tissue is depleted, which is manifested by a decrease in the relative area of the white pulp, a decrease in the density of lymphoid cells, an increase in the proportion of apoptically altered lymphocytes and plasma cells. The area of lymphoid nodules and the size of their reproductive centers are reduced. Apoptosis of cells leads to the formation of areas of destruction.
Conclusions. After eight weeks of cancellation of influence of monosodium glutamate of return changes in structure of a parenchyma of a spleen are not revealed. Thus, the abolition of long-term use of monosodium glutamate does not «improve» the morphometric parameters of the parenchyma of the rat spleen and does not restore the morphological structure of the organ.
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