• А. B. Kostushun Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University, Department of Orthopedic Dentistry, Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5500-0874
Ключові слова: bite height, tooth abrasion


Aesthetic and hygienic requirements of patients with reduced bite height necessitate the use of modern orthopedic constructions. The main cause of this disease is pathological abrasion of the hard tissues of the teeth, the prevalence of which ranges from 4 to 57% at a young age, reaches 91% in the elderly and is accompanied by both morphological and functional disorders of the dental-maxillary system.

The aim of the research. Research the features of the diagnosis of dental status in patients with reduced bite height and timing of their treatment.

Materials and methods of research. Determine the degree of reduction in the height of the bite in persons with pathological abrasion of the hard tissues of the teeth of varying severity compared with the norm and features of its recovery.

Research results and their discussion. In order to prepare for orthopedic treatment, we determined the height of the bite in 123 patients. Accordingly, they were divided into three groups. Group 1 consisted of 32 patients with included dentition defects with reduced bite height up to 2 mm (n = 32), group 2 - examined with included dentition defects with reduced bite height 2-4 mm (n = 31), group 3 are patients with included dentition defects with reduced bite height of 4-6 mm (n = 30). All persons of the main groups belonged to the second and third age groups according to the WHO, aged 35-55 years, who required orthopedic treatment with fixed constructions of dentures.

The control group (n = 30) are young people who belonged to the 1st WHO age group (age - 18-34 years) with intact dentition, without concomitant somatic and dental pathology, were examined in one visit.

In order to study the degree of dependence of bite height reduction between incisors, canines, premolars and molars, we studied 30 gypsum models of supergypsum of the upper and lower jaws without reduction of bite height and 93 - with varying degrees of pathological abrasion of tooth hard tissues of all examined people.

The models were fixed in a standard articulator in the central occlusion position. Using a caliper, we determined the size of the tooth crowns and compared it with standard sizes.

In this research, we found the dependence of the degree of reduction in the height of the bite in the area of molars - premolars - incisors and canines in the ratio 1: 1,25: 1,5.

We performed orthopedic treatment and subsequent clinical observation for each patient for 6 months, examining their condition after fixation of prostheses in 1 week and in 1, 3 and 6 months after orthopedic treatment.

Based on the diagnosis of bite height reduction, we provided practical recommendations on the terms of use of fixed pharmacy bridges prostheses according to the degree of bite height reduction in the examined people.

In the case of patients with a decrease in bite height by 3-4 mm, permanent orthopedic treatment is possible in 90 days after fixation of temporary orthopedic constructions in the oral cavity, and in patients with a reduced bite height of more than 4 mm - in 180 days.

Conclusions. According to the results of the research, a high efficiency of determining the degree of reduction in bite height in preparing patients for permanent orthopedic treatment depending on the severity of the pathological process.

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