Ключові слова: myodynamic balance, nasal type of respiration, oral type of respiration, diagnosis in orthodontics, dental anomalies.


According to foreign and domestic sources, the prevalence of dental anomalies in patients aged 6-9 years reaches 63-80% in different regions. A powerful etiopathogenetic factor in the occurrence of pathology is a violation of the nasal type of breathing. The cause of respiratory dysfunction is often hypertrophy of the palatine and pharyngeal tonsils, as well as respiratory allergies (bronchial asthma, rhinosinusitis, recurrent adenoiditis, allergic rhinitis, etc.), the number of which is constantly growing. The transition from normal nasal breathing to mixed or oral breathing leads to changes in myodynamic balance and provokes the formation of occlusal pathology, in the presence of other functional disorders (infantile type of swallowing, short bridle of the tongue, tongue placement, biting of lips or cheeks, etc.). Normally, the tongue at rest is located on the palate, when swallowing the tip of the tongue is pushed away from the "resting point" and waves the saliva or food lump to the oropharynx pressing against the palate.The correct position of the tongue counteracts the pressure created by the muscles of the cheeks and lips. During oral or mixed types of breathing, the tongue occupies the lower or interdental position, the upper jaw loses support and does not develop sufficiently.Reduction of the size of the upper jaw in three mutually perpendicular directions, leads not only to a change in the shape and size of the lower jaw, but also to a deterioration of the general condition of the body (posture disorders, decrease in the volume of the upper respiratory tract, change in the direction of growth of the facial skeleton, apnea, decreased mental activity, which are complexly associated with aesthetic desires.

That is why timely detection and treatment of respiratory dysfunctions is very important during early orthodontic treatment.

An integrated approach allows to solve the problem in general and ensure optimal results. Therefore, the aim of our research is a timely and more detailed study of respiratory dysfunction in patients aged 6-9 years, creating a comprehensive orthodontic treatment plan, reducing treatment time and ensuring a more stable outcome. We examined and admitted for treatment 92 children aged 6-9 years with distal occlusion, patients were divided into 2 groups according to the treatment methods. The first main group included patients who were treated by myofunctional equipment, and the second group included children who were treated by mechanically operated equipment. Each patient underwent standard orthodontic diagnostics: collection of anamnesis, photo protocol, production of diagnostic models, X-ray diagnostics (orthopantomogram) and we proposed an additional method of examination - capnometry. All data were recorded and confirmed in the patient's personal orthodontic card (primary registration form № 043-1/o). In the research, we evaluated the intermediate results of capnometry and extended photoprotocol (taking into account soft tissue analysis № 043-1/o, Schwartz profile analysis, overjet, overbite) every 4 months in both groups. As a result, the percentage of successful treatment in the group treated with the proposed method was 93,5%, in the group of standard treatment 86,2%. Parents of patients who have undergone a respiratory program report calmer sleep in children, increased mental activity and improved general well-being. It is also argued that visualizing the progress of treatment increases the motivation of both parents and children.

Біографія автора

К. М. Lykhota, Shupik National Medical Academy Of Postgraduate Education, Kyiv, Ukraine



Оригінальні дослідження