INFLUENCE OF NITRIC OXIDE, HYDROGEN SULFIDE, MARKERS OF ANTIOXIDANT HOMEOSTASIS AND BONE METABOLISM OF ORAL FLUID ON THE DENTAL HEALTH OF CHILDREN WITH MILD IODINE DEFICIENCY, LATENT IRON DEFICIENCY AND ASSOCIATED MICROELEMENTOSIS
The article analyzes the metabolism of nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), markers of antioxidant protection, bone metabolism of oral fluid and features of dental status in children with mild iodine deficiency (МІD), latent iron deficiency and combined (LID); a combination of trace elements was examined.
As a result of the study (age group from 6 to 11 years) under the conditions of МІD in boys there was an increase in the level of NO2, NO2- + NO3-, and in girls - peroxynitrite in the oral fluid. In schoolchildren with LІD changes in the studied parameters were less pronounced (in the oral fluid increased NO2 concentration regardless of gender and increased peroxynitrite content only in girls). Under conditions of combined micronutrient imbalance in the oral fluid levels of NO2 increased, the amount of NO2- and NO3-, peroxynitrite, regardless of gender, and girls, in addition, levels of arginase decreased. Such changes were observed against the background of weakening of antioxidant protection of oral fluid. In particular, acid phosphatase (АсР) was activated under the conditions of LD in boys against the background of alkaline phosphatase (АР) inhibition and reduction of total calcium levels in oral fluid. The same tendency was observed in girls of this group, in addition, they found inhibition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of oral fluid. Under the conditions of LІD, regardless of gender, KF activation was observed against the background of АсР suppression (in boys), decrease in SOD activity (in girls). The most pronounced changes were observed in the oral fluid of children with combined iodine and iron deficiency: increased activity of АР regardless of gender, glutathione peroxidase (GP), LF in girls, inhibition of АсР activity in boys, decreased total calcium regardless of gender. The level of ionized calcium in the oral fluid increased only in girls.
In children aged 12 to 18 years under the conditions of МІD, an increase in the concentration of peroxynitrite in the oral fluid regardless of gender and a decrease in arginase levels were found only in girls. In the oral fluid of boys with LІD found a decrease in L-arginine, in girls - and an increase in L-arginine, NO2 concentration on the background of a decrease in arginase and peroxynitrite. In high school students with combined microelements, regardless of gender, the content of peroxynitrite in the oral fluid and a decrease in the level of L-arginine in boys and an increase in arginase in girls. In this group, a significant increase in the concentration of H2S in schoolgirls, which can perform a protective function in oxidative stress or impaired blood supply, attracts attention. The results of the level of total, ionized calcium and phosphatase activity indicate an increase in the resorptive process in periodontal tissues in all experimental groups.
During the dental examination, a high level of caries prevalence, a decrease in the level of hygiene, and a higher PMA index were found in older schoolchildren with a combination of microelements. The poorer level of dental health among boys concerning girls attracts attention, which can be explained by the better level of care and daily rehabilitation of the oral cavity in girls.
Thus, under the conditions of preclinical microelements the indicators of NO metabolism change, the antioxidant reserve of oral fluid decreases, and markers of bone metabolism are disturbed. Such biochemical changes in the composition of oral fluid are compared with indicators of dental status.
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